Working Principle of Electric Geyser: Benefits, Parts and Types

Is a water heater called a Geyser?

  • Water heater is a also called as geyser when the electricity is used as source of heating using the electric resistance rod.
  • It was the invention of an Englishman named Benjamin Waddy Maughan who named his invention after the well known Icelandic hot spring called Geyser.
  • In some parts of the world, particularly in India and South Africa, a water heater is commonly referred to as a “geyser.”
  • This term is a regional or colloquial way of describing a device that heats water for domestic use, such as for bathing, washing dishes, and laundry.
  • The term “geyser” likely originated from the natural geothermal geysers that erupt with hot water and steam, and it was used to describe water heaters that mimic the action of these natural phenomena by providing hot water on demand.
  • In many other English-speaking regions, especially in the United States and Canada, the term “water heater” or simply “hot water heater” is more commonly used.
  • So, whether you call it a “water heater” or a “geyser” depends on the regional language and colloquialisms in use.
  • The function of the appliance is the same: to heat water for various household purposes.

How does an Electric Geyser heat up water?

  • The geyser converts electrical energy into heat energy using electric resistance.
  • That heat is transfer to surrounding water in the geyser or water bucket.
  • After heating the convection flow is formed in the water



How does an electric geyser heat water

  • Water geysers, also known as hot water heaters or simply heaters, are devices that are used to heat water for various domestic purposes such as bathing, cleaning, and cooking
  • These appliances have become an indispensable part of modern households, providing a constant supply of hot water at the turn of a tap
  • The most common type of water geyser is the storage tank heater, which works by heating water in an insulated tank and maintaining the temperature of the water until it is needed
  • The tank is typically mounted on the roof or on the wall of a building and can range in size from 20 to 80 gallons, depending on the needs of the household. The tank is usually made of stainless steel or glass-lined steel, which helps to prevent corrosion and extend the life of the heater.

Main Benefits a water Geyser

  • One of the main benefits of having a water geyser is the convenience of having a constant supply of hot water
  • This eliminates the need to wait for water to heat up on the stove or in a pot, and it also allows for multiple people to use hot water simultaneously without having to wait
  • Additionally, many modern water geysers come equipped with a variety of features such as temperature control, energy-saving modes, and safety features such as automatic shut-off
  • However, it is important to keep in mind that water geysers can be expensive to purchase and install, and they also consume a significant amount of energy. Therefore, it is important to choose a water geyser that is both efficient and meets the needs of the household
  • Factors such as the size of the tank, the type of fuel source, and the type of heating element should all be considered when making a purchase.

Benefits of Electric Geyser Popular over solar water heater

  •   To get the hot water continuously in all season, an electric geyser or water heater  (EWH) is more useful device
  • EWH easy to install anywhere with the electric power
  • Its water temperature can easily be regulated automatically by a thermostat
  • It works on the principle of thermal storage i.e. the water is preheated by immersion water in a storage vessel and is kept for future use. To get the water in a storage vessel and is kept for future use
  • To get the hot water from time to time, the storing vessel is provided with thick insulation or it is properly legged to dissipate the heat.
  • The heating element is fixed at the bottom horizontally or vertically
  • As the water heater is switched ‘on’ the cold water is heated up, becomes lighter and starts moving up while the cold water being heavier comes down
  • Thus due to this circulation of water, we can get hot water from the outlet valve. If the element is fixed horizontally, the water above it, is heated very slowly but when the element is fixed vertically, the water surrounding this is heated up very soon. So the vertical fitting of the element in the water heater is more referred.


What are Parts of Electric Geyser?

  • The electric geyser consists of a water tank fitted with two pipes:
    • Inlet pipe for cold water
    • Outlet pipe of hot water
  • The water tank is fitted with heating elements that are controlled by thermostats
  • The thermostats ensure that water is not heated above a set temperature value
  • The tank is normally covered with some insulating material and enclosed inside a metal casing.

Water Geyser Installation and Maintenance

Important Points to take care of during the geyser installation:

  • Ensure that there is sufficient space available for the geyser unit in the bathroom
  • Correct height from the ground
  • Ensure continuous water supply
  • The Geyser unit must be installed at the correct height from the ground.
  • Firm wall structure.
  • Unblocked water pipes.
  • Safe electrical connections.

SURAKSHA White Electric Geyser, Power: 2-4 (kW), Packaging Type: Box, Rs 6500 | ID: 21361033748


  • Typically, geysers have a lifespan of five years and over this time they corrode.
  • Homeowners can lengthen the lifespan of their geysers by maintaining them properly

Major Parts of Installations and process

An electric water heater works by using electrical resistance to heat water inside a tank. Here’s a step-by-step explanation of how it operates:

Cold Water Inlet:

  • Cold water from your home’s plumbing system enters the water heater through a pipe connected to the bottom of the tank.
  • This cold water is then stored in the tank until it’s needed.

Heating Elements:

  • Inside the tank, there are one or two heating elements made of materials like stainless steel or copper.
  • These heating elements are connected to electrical wires and are submerged in the water.

Thermostat Control:

  • The water heater has a thermostat, which allows you to set the desired temperature for the hot water.
  • When the water temperature inside the tank drops below the set temperature, the thermostat signals the heating elements to turn on.

Electric Resistance Heating:

  • When the heating elements receive the signal from the thermostat, they start heating up.
  • Electric current flows through these elements, and they resist the flow of electricity, which generates heat.
  • This heat is transferred to the water in the tank, raising its temperature.

Heat Distribution:

  • The heating process begins at the bottom of the tank, where the heating elements are located.
  • As the water in the vicinity of the heating elements gets warmer, it rises to the top of the tank. This movement, known as convection, causes the cooler water at the top of the tank to move down to the bottom to be heated. This cycle continues until the entire tank reaches the desired temperature.

Temperature and Pressure Regulation:

  • To ensure safety, electric water heaters are equipped with a temperature and pressure relief valve. If the water temperature or pressure inside the tank exceeds safe levels, this valve opens to release excess pressure and prevent the tank from exploding.

Hot Water Outlet:

  • When you open a hot water tap or use a hot water appliance in your home, hot water is drawn from the top of the tank through a pipe connected to the hot water outlet.
  • This hot water is then delivered to the point of use, such as a faucet or showerhead.

Energy Efficiency:

  • Many electric water heaters come with insulation to reduce heat loss from the tank.
  • This insulation helps the heater maintain the water temperature efficiently, reducing energy consumption and heating costs.


  • Over time, sediment and minerals from the water can accumulate at the bottom of the tank.
  • This can reduce the heater’s efficiency. Periodic maintenance, like flushing the tank to remove sediment, is necessary to keep the water heater operating efficiently.
  • Electric water heaters are relatively straightforward and reliable appliances, commonly used in homes to provide a continuous supply of hot water for bathing, washing dishes, laundry, and other domestic purposes.
  • They are available in various sizes to meet the hot water needs of different households.


Classification of Electric Geyser or Electric Water Heater

Electric geyser can be classified in the following ways:

Immersion Water Heater or Electric Rod

  • It can be put in any vessel full of water and by switching on, the water is heated up
  • This is risky you have to monitor heating of water
  • It is a portable and cheap and has been described before. You can refer the details of immersion water heater in the post. You have to control the temperature manually rather than thermostat. However, the electric geyser is more safer than it.


Best Immersion water heater

 Self-contained Heaters

These are of two types:

Pressure Type Water Heater.

  • These consist of a storage vessel, heavily legged, electrically heated and provided with a thermostat system.
  •   In other words it is called cistern type water heater as it works on atmospheric pressure.
  • This type of water heater is used at that place where the hot water is required at more than one service points with one heater only.
  • This heater gets its supply of cold water from the cistern (over head tank) connected with the water mains and the water controlled with the help of a float valve.
  • The copper pipes connected with the heating chamber are used to supply the hot water under pressure to different service points which are controlled with a tap.
  • The element and thermostat are fixed at the removable plate fitted on the base of the water heater for their easy service and to remove them easily.
  • The water is of 750 to 3000 W.

These are of two types:

  • (i) Constant volume pressure type water heater:
    • In this heater, the hot water drained off is replaced equally with cold water having equal volume.
    • So it is called a constant pressure type water heater
  • (ii) Non-constant volume pressure type water heater:
    • in this heater,  the rate at which the hot water flows out is not the same at which the cold water enters into the heating chamber.
    • So it is known as non-constant or varying volume pressure type water heater Read more on –

Non-pressure Type Water Heater

  • This type of water heater is used at that place where the hot water is required only at one service point e.g. for wash-basins and sinks etc. Such water heaters have an open outlet i.e. not having any stop-cock.
  • Its water is controlled from the inlet side.
  • These contain two cylindrical vessels, one fitted inside the outer. The inner vessel consists of heating chamber made of tinned copper. Inside it, the heating element and thermostat are fixed vertically at the bottom.
  • The outer vessel is made of lead-coated-steel and painter outside with enamel paint.
  • The space between the two vessels is filled with heat resisting insulating material to reduce heat loss.
  • The temperature of the water is controlled automatically with thermostat.
  • The inlet and outlet pipes are chromium plated to avoid corrosion.
  • The cold water flows from the cold water supply pipe (inlet pipe) and enters in the heating chamber and is controlled by a valve. The hot water flows out from the top of the heating chamber through the hot water pipe (outlet pipe).
  • An anti drip device is provided with the hot water pipe to cut off the quick hot water supply and to prevent the water to be drained off through the cold water pipe valve when the supply of cold water fails.
  • As the hot water pipe is an open outlet, when the cold water inlet valve is opened, the cold water rushes into the heating chamber, displaces and forces out an equal quantity of hot water through the hot water outlet pipe.
  • To save the water heater from the developed pressure inside the heating chamber, a vent plug is fitted at the top which allows extra pressure in the atmosphere. The wattage of this water heater is about 750 to 2000 W etc.

Classifications Based on Applications 

Space Heaters

There are several types of electric heaters designed for various purposes and heating needs. Here are some common types of electrical heaters:

    • Convection Heaters: These heaters warm the air in a room through natural convection, where cool air is drawn in, heated, and then rises. Examples include oil-filled radiators and ceramic heaters.
    • Radiant Heaters: Radiant heaters emit infrared radiation, which directly heats people and objects in their line of sight. They provide quick, focused heat and are ideal for spot heating in small areas.
  • Baseboard Heaters: These heaters are typically installed along the baseboards of rooms and use convection to heat the air. They are often used as supplemental heating sources.
  • Wall Heaters:

Wall heaters are mounted on walls and provide localized heating for specific rooms or areas.

hey come in various types, including fan-forced and convection heaters.

Industrial Applications of Heaters 

  • Fan Heaters:
    • Forced-Fan Heaters: These heaters use an internal fan to blow air over heating elements and distribute warm air quickly. They are efficient for heating larger spaces.
    • Tower Heaters: Tower heaters are tall, compact heaters equipped with a fan. They can oscillate to distribute warm air evenly in a room.
  • Ceiling Heaters: Ceiling-mounted heaters are often used in commercial or industrial settings. They blow warm air downward to heat large spaces efficiently.
  • Underfloor Heating: This type of heating system is installed beneath the floor, typically using electric resistance cables or mats. It provides even, radiant heat and is common in bathrooms and kitchens.
  • Infrared Heaters: Infrared heaters emit infrared radiation, which heats objects and people directly. They are energy-efficient and can be used for both indoor and outdoor heating.
  • Portable Heaters: Portable heaters are small, easily movable units that are convenient for providing temporary heating in specific areas. They include various types such as space heaters, ceramic heaters, and radiant heaters.
  • Panel Heaters:
    • Panel heaters are flat, wall-mounted units that heat the surrounding air using convection.
    • They are typically slim and can be a discreet heating solution.
  • Towel Warmers:
    • Towel warmers are designed to heat towels in bathrooms, making them warm and comfortable to use after bathing or showering. They are often wall-mounted or freestanding.
  • Kick Space Heaters:
    • These heaters are installed beneath cabinets or counters in kitchens or bathrooms to provide extra heat in areas where space is limited.
  • Garage Heaters: Designed for heating garage spaces, these heaters come in various forms, including forced-air garage heaters and infrared garage heaters.
  • Heat Lamps: Heat lamps use infrared radiation to provide localized heat. They are commonly used in bathrooms or for keeping food warm in restaurants.
  • Each type of electric heater has its advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of heater depends on factors such as the size of the area to be heated, energy efficiency, safety considerations, and the specific heating needs of the user.


  •  Electric Water geysers (EWG) have become an indispensable part of modern households, providing a constant supply of hot water for various domestic purposes
  • With several types of water heaters available on the market, it is important to choose one that is both efficient and meets the needs of the household
  • Regardless of the type of water geyser chosen, it is essential to have it installed and maintained by a professional plumber to ensure that it operates safely and efficiently.

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